Workshop on Logic Representation of Traffic Rules (LoReTra)
in conjunction with ICAIL 2023
The 19th International Conference on Artificial Inteligence and Law


Workshop date: 23.6.2023



Session 1: BEFAIR²+EMAI 2023

Tomasz Zurek, Samuel M. Brasil Jr., Tom van Engers, Berenice Boutin, Cristine Griffo
Introduction to 2nd Workshop on Bias, Ethics and Fairness in Artificial Intelligence in conjunction with 1st Workshop on Ethics, Morality, and Artificial Intelligence (BEFAIR2+EMAI)


Helórya Santiago de Souza
Autonomous Weapons Desirable Legal Framework for the Use of Artificial Intelligence in Warfare – Extended Abstract


Chloe Gros, Peter Werkhoven, Leon Kester and Marieke Martens
Defining a method for ethical decision making for automated vehicles

10.30 Coffee Break
Session 2: LoReTra

Georg Borges and Adrian Paschke 
Introduction to Workshop on Logic Representation of Traffic Rules (LoReTra) and the AI Knowledge Project


Mari Chitashvili, Moussa Hermann, Diogo Sasdelli and Clara Wüst
A Normal Form for Representing Legal Norms and its Visualisation Through Normative Diagrams


Adam Wyner, Galileo Sartor, Guiseppe Contissa and Jacinto Davila
Mind the Gap - Logic Programming and Logical English for Autonomous Vehicles


Raffael L. Schoen, Kostadin Cholakov, Stefan Zwicklbauer and Daniel Baer
Formalizing the Rules of the Road in First-Order Logic Using Large Language Models

13.00 Lunch



Using symbolic logic to formalise legal norms is one of the most traditional goals of legal informatics as a scientific discipline. More than mere theoretical value, this approach is also connected to promising real-world applications involving, e.g., the observance of legal norms by highly automated machines or even the (partial) automatisation of legal reasoning, leading to new automated legal services.

Albeit the long research tradition on the use of logic to formalise legal norms – be it by using classic logic systems (e.g., first-order logic), be it by attempting to construct a  specific system of logic of norms (e.g., deontic logic) –, many challenges involved in the development of an adequate methodology for the formalisation of concrete legal regulations remain unsolved. This includes not only the choice of a sufficiently expressive formal language or model, but also the concrete way through which a legal text formulated in natural language is to be translated into the formal representation.

The workshop LoReTra seeks to explore the various challenges connected with the task of using formal languages and models to represent legal norms, at the example of traffic rules, in a machine-readable manner, and reasoning with such formalizations, e.g., in autonomous driving.



LoReTra seeks to discuss current research questions concerning (among others):

  • Knowledge representation methods applicable to legal norms (in particular traffic rules), including different types of (deontic) logic or comparable formalisms
  • Formalisation of and reasoning with rule-exceptions, rule-conflicts and/or contrary-to-duty obligations
  • Formalisation of abstract legal concepts and basic principles of law (e.g., "human dignity", "mutual respect", "care", "danger", "trust")
  • Models and approaches to the practical implementation of law-formalisations (e.g., (legal) ontologies, LegalRuleML, PROLEG, reasoning engines, SAT-solvers)
  • Models and approaches - including automated methods - to adequately 'translate' legal provisions (especially traffic rules) from natural language to a formal symbolism
  • Legal and/or engineering challenges arising from the use of formal representation methods to formalise legal norms (especially traffic rules)
  • Methods and approaches for legal and ethical AI reasoning and compliance checking in autonomous driving applying formalized traffic rules and legal knowledge
  • Machine learning methods and approaches for knowledge extraction and learning and hybrid symbolic and sub-symbolic approaches for knowledge representation and reasoning with traffic rules

We particularly invite submissionbs including experience reports on concrete attempts at
implementing formalisations of legal norms within an automated system.



The workshop aims to attract participants from various disciplines, particularly from Computer Science, Law and Philosophy, and to be of interest to anyone working on the application of knowledge representation methods to the field of law.


Participation and Submission

People interested in participating are invited to submit high quality, original short (5-9 pages) or long papers (10-14 pages) in the style template CEURART (1-column variant), available at:


Submitted papers must be original contributions written in English. Please submit your paper via EasyChair.

Authors of the accepted papers will present at the workshop. The publication of the submited papers (e.g. as CEUR workshop-proceedings) is intended.



Georg Borges (Saarland University, Germany)

Adrian Paschke (Freie Universität Berlin and Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany)


Program Committee

Adrian Paschke - Freie Universität Berlin
Ken Satoh - National Institute of Informatics and Sokendai
Alexander Steen - Universität Greifswald
Erich Schweighofer - University of Vienna
Georg Borges - Institute of Legal Informatics, Saarland University
Randy Goebel - University of Alberta
Juliano Maranhao - University of Sao Paulo
Guido Governatori - Independent Researcher


Important Dates

Submission deadline: 17.4.2023 27.4.2023

Notification of acceptance: 16.5.2023

Workshop: 23.6.2023


Sponsor of the Workshop

The LoReTra '23 workshop is part of the project KI Wissen which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action.

BMAS: ExamAI – KI Testing & Auditing

In the BMAS (Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs) project "ExamAI" Professor Borges' chair develops concepts for auditing and certification of AI applications. Further information: ExamAI


Legal Testbed

The chair of Prof. Borges is developing solutions for Industry 4.0 through the project "Recht-Testbed Industrie 4.0" funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). More...


As part of the »INITIATIVE« project Professor Borges' team is working on AI-supported communication for autonomous vehicles in traffic. Click here to learn more...

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